Elucidating biosynthetic pathways for vitamins and cofactors dating gauteng usa

11-Oct-2020 15:13

Because intestine is exposed not only to pathogens but also to diets and commensal bacteria, gut immune system simultaneously shows both active and quiescent immune responses against pathogens and non-pathogenic factors, respectively.Indeed, regulatory-type cells such as Foxp3 regulatory T (Treg) cells, IL-10-producing Tr1 cells, IL-10-producing regulatory macrophages are abundantly present in the intestine ().Pivotal roles of vitamins in the maintenance of immunologic homeostasis in the gut.Vitamin A-derived retinoic acid promotes the differentiation of naive T cells to Treg cells and simultaneously inhibits the induction of Th17 cells in the steady state.RA binds to retinoic acid receptors (RAR), a nuclear receptor, and regulates the gene transcription.RA induces expres sion of Foxp3 in naive T cells through RAR and thus enhances the preferential induction of Treg cells in TGF-β dependent manner.Division of Mucosal Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology and International Research and Development Center for Mucosal Vaccines, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Jun Kunisawa, Laboratory of Vaccine Materials, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition (NIBIOHN), 7-6-8 Asagi Saito, Ibaraki-City, Osaka 567-0085, Japan.

Simultaneously, RA prevents the induction of Th17 cells in the steady state by inhibiting IL-6 receptor expression ().This site stores nothing other than an automatically generated session ID in the cookie; no other information is captured.